Basics Of Pharmacy: November 2021

Tuesday, November 30, 2021

Work Instructions In Pharma

As the name indicates, work instructions are the written instructions to complete a specific task in an area and if we talk about pharmaceutical industries then work instructions are written instructions to show how a specific work is to be performed during the manufacturing or cleaning process.

Monday, November 29, 2021

Clove And Constituents Of Clove

Clove is a naturally occurring plant and is used for kitchen recipes and also used as natural medicine for treating various conditions.


The colour of the clove is reddish-brown and is available in both whole clove and ground clove forms.

Its ground form or ground clove is a fine powder and in the whole form or whole clove , is long in shape having a crown at one end.

Saturday, November 27, 2021

Ginger | Constituents Of Ginger

Ginger is one of the most important natural herbal drugs which is commonly used as a spice and also has medicinal use. Every one of us is very well familiar with ginger because it is a commonly used kitchen item, but apart from its use in food, it is also used for various medicinal purposes as well.

In this article, we will discuss various pharmacognostic features of ginger, its uses and interactions as well.

Other Names Of Ginger

Other common names of ginger are given as below,

  • Zingibere

  • Rhizoma zingiberis

  • African ginger

  • Race ginger

In Pakistan, it is known as "Adrak".

The Latin word zingiber mean deer's horn because it resembles with horns of the deer.

Friday, November 26, 2021

Pharmacology And Its Branches

The word Pharmacology is derived from the Greek word "Pharmakon" and "logia".The meaning of Pharmakon is drug and the meaning of "logia" is "study of" or "knowledge of" so, in general, the term, Pharmacology means "study of drugs".

Tuesday, November 23, 2021

Prescription And Its Parts

A prescription is a written order which is generated by the physician, dentist or another registered medical practitioner (RMP) to the pharmacist to compound and dispense medicines to the patients.

In simple words, the prescription is a piece of paper that is written by the registered medical practitioner (RMP)  according to the patient's disease condition.

Prescriptions contain not only the medicines but also contain all other important information regarding the dose of medicine, when to take it, how to take etc.

The patient, after consulting the registered medical practitioner (RMP) , goes to the pharmacy along with the prescription and hands it over to the pharmacist and then the pharmacist dispenses the medication according to the prescribed order.

The pharmacist creates a bridge between the patient and RMP by supplying the correct medicines, pharmacists not only give medicines to the patient but also gives instructions regarding the use of medicines according to the prescriber's advice.

Prescriptions are written in the native language of the area but some Latin words are also used for indication of dose instructions.

 Parts Of Prescription

A good and complete prescription consists of the following parts or components,

  • Date

  • Name & Address

  • Gender & Age

  • Superscription

  • Inscription

  • Subscription

  • Signatura

  • Signature, Address & Registration Number


The date is an important factor that ensures updation of the prescription and the date is mentioned on the prescription when a patient visits the prescriber.

The same date is mentioned on the prescription on the day when the patient is checked by the physician and this date helps pharmacists to understand that the prescription is updated and is dispensed as soon as possible.

If a patient comes to the pharmacist to dispense medicines according to the prescription which bears one week old date,it will be questionable by the pharmacist, that is it still be able to full fill patients' needs.

The date on prescription also helps to track treatment duration and to know when the last prescription was filled.

Name & Address

The name and address of the patient must be written on the prescription to ensure delivery of medicines to the right person and the complete name of the patient should be written to avoid confusion.

Gender & Age

The gender and age of the patient are also mentioned on the prescription to ensure the proper dose is prescribed.


Superscription is the symbol represented by Rx and it is written at the start of the prescription.

Rx is an abbreviation of the Latin word recipe which means "you take"


The inscription is the main part of the prescription and consists of the following,

  • Name of the medicine

  • Dose of medicine

  • When to take


This part of the prescription contains directions for the pharmacist, in case of a drug if it has to be compounded in the pharmacy.


It is indicated by Sig. and this part contains directions for patients regarding the use or administration of the medicines and all these directions are mentioned on the label of medicines if these are to be compounded by the pharmacist in the pharmacy.

 Signature, Address & Registration Number

For the authenticity of the prescription, it must bear the signatures of the prescriber on the prescription and also bear the address and registration number of the prescriber.

Also Read

Handling Of Prescription

Quality Assurance

Thursday, November 18, 2021

Quality Assurance

Quality assurance,also known as Q.A is a very important department in pharmaceutical industries and as the name indicates this department assures the quality of the products.

Quality assurance is a broader term and this department is involved in a large number of activities in pharmaceutical industries, some are given as below,

Saturday, November 13, 2021

Pharmacist | How To Become Pharmacist

A pharmacist is a health care professional who is involved in the manufacturing, compounding, storage and dispensing of drugs.

How To Become a Pharmacist

To become a pharmacist, a Doctor Of Pharmacy Degree or Pharm D degree is required.

The duration of the Pharm D degree program varies from country to country and on average it takes 5 years after completion of intermediate education.

In Some countries, its 6 years program includes 5 years of education and one year for residency.

In Pakistan, before 2004 a 4 years degree of pharmacy known as B Pharm was offered and it was replaced by a 5 years Pharm D degree program in 2004.

In Pakistan,Pharm D degree is offered by different private and government colleges and universities and is accepted within the country and outside the country as well.

Fields For Pharmacist Working

In broader terms, a pharmacist is a professional who is involved in different activities in different government and private sectors.

Following is a basic overview of some sectors,

  • Hospitals

  • Community Pharmacy

  • Drug Testing Labs

  • Forensic Science

  • Pharmaceutical Industries

  • Research and development

  • Regulatory Affairs

  • Marketing

  • Education


  • Hospital is a place where treatment is provided to a  large number of patients on a daily basis and both in-patients and out-patients are provided with medicines.

  • Pharmacists working in hospital pharmacies play an important role in hospitals for storage, dispensing and compounding of medicines.

  • Pharmacists working in hospitals also provide patient counselling for drug-drug interaction, drug food interaction, dosage and side effects.

How To Get Job In Hospitals

  • To get a job in a hospital, different assessment tests are conducted according to the different country requirements.

Community Pharmacy

  • Community Pharmacy is also known as a retail pharmacy and it is the place where pharmacists are easily accessible to the patients.

  • In community pharmacies patients can directly get counseling from Pharmacists regarding their medicines.


Pharmaceutical Industries

  • Pharmaceutical industries are the manufacturing units where medicines are manufactured using raw materials.

  • Pharmacists working in the pharmaceutical industries are involved in dispensing of raw materials to manufacturing of  different dosage forms.

  • After manufacturing, supervision of packaging is also done by the qualified pharmacist.

  • In pharmaceutical industries quality assurance and testing of products is also done by pharmacists.

How To Get a Job In Pharma

  • To get a job in the pharmaceutical industry a written test or interview is conducted.

Drug Testing Labs

  • Drug testing labs are the government bodies and pharmacists working there are involved in testing different medicine samples taken from hospitals or retail pharmacies to ensure that products delivered from pharmaceutical industries are of required standards.

Forensic Science

  • Forensic science pharmacists are involved in the testing and identification of drugs for legal requirements.

Research and development 

  • Research and development pharmacists are involved in the research and development of different medicinal products.

Regulatory Pharmacist

  • Regulatory affairs pharmacists prepare different documents required for regulatory bodies.

Marketing Pharmacist

  • Marketing pharmacists work for brand awareness of pharmaceutical products.


  • Pharmacists are also involved in providing education to students in different universities and training sessions.

Also Read:

Introduction Of Hospital Pharmacy

Basics Of Pharmaceutics

Monday, November 8, 2021

Enzymes Classification And Functions

Enzymes are biological polymers that act as a catalyst in the human body to perform many life important functions.

For easy understanding enzymes are defined as,

Enzymes are proteins that are involved in increasing the process of metabolism or speed up chemical reactions in the human body.

Enzymes are organic compounds that have both constructive and destructive effects.

Enzymes are involved in building many substances and are also involved in the breakdown of different substances.

Thursday, November 4, 2021

Types And Functions Of Vitamins

Vitamins are organic compounds that are not produced by the human body in a required quantity and are supplied to the human body through diet.

Vitamin is a very common word that we hear many times in our daily life but most people are not aware of the fact that vitamins taken from supplements are not as good as we take it from a natural diet. So try to take vitamins from natural sources.

Wednesday, November 3, 2021

Aromatherapy Using Essential Oils

Aromatherapy is the type of holistic therapy in which essential oils or aromatic compounds of plants are used to improve physiological and emotional health.

Or in simple words, it is the treatment using scents.

It can also be defined as the type of therapy in which aromatic extracts from plants are used to improve health.

Origin  Of Aromatherapy

This term was introduced by Grattefosse in 1928. He accidentally discovered that aromatic oils have healing effects. He was working in a lab and his hand was burnt. He suddenly put his hand in lavender oil and noticed that lavender oil had a healing effect on his hand. Essential oils were also used in world war II for treating injured persons.

In recent years with advancements in techniques, it is proved experimentally that aroma or scent or essential oils have a direct effect on the human brain just like medicines.

What Are Essential Oils

Essential oils are the scents or aromas extracted from different parts of plants. This oil can be extracted from the following parts,

  • Flowers 

  • Leaves

  • Barks

  • Seeds

  • Fruit etc

Essential oils are a mixture of many complex and small compounds like ketones, ester, terpenes etc.

Essential oil consists of very tiny droplets and can penetrate the skin easily and enter into the bloodstream.

Essential oils have therapeutic and physiological effects.

Effects Of Essential Oils

Essential oils have the following properties,

  • Healing effect

  • Antiseptic effect

  • Anti Inflammatory effect

  • Antiviral 

  • Relaxing effect

  • Improve digestion 

  • Pain killer

Mechanism Of Action Of Aroma Oil

As we discussed earlier that the smell has a direct effect on the brain, here will discuss how it acts to give the required effect.

  • When we experience any smell or aroma it enters the nose and comes in contact with cilia in the nose. The receptors in cilia are attached to the olfactory lobe which is situated at the end of the smell tract. This end tract is attached to the brain.

  • So smell through cilia is transferred to the brain in the form of electrical impulses and reaches the limbic system of the brain. The limbic system is associated with moods, learning, memory and emotions.

Examples Of Essential Oils

Following are some main examples of essential oils,

  • Lavender oil

  • Lemon oil

  • Rosemary oil

  • Peppermint oil

Method Of Application

Essential oils are safe to use and can be applied as follow,

  • Application To Skin

  • Ingestion

  • Inhalation

Application To Skin

The use of these oils by applying on the skin is very common and easy because essential oils penetrate the skin easily and enter into blood circulation.

Some people may be sensitive to these oils so it is recommended to use aromatic oils in the form of dilutions. This means it is mixed with some carrier oil and then is applied to the skin.

Essential oils can be applied in the form of perfumes, cologne or ointments.

By mixing these oils in carrier oils or honey it can be used for bathtub or foot baths


The essential oil can be used in the form of aerosols through the nose or throat for treating respiratory problems. It gives rapid effect through this route. 

Also Read

Evaluation Of Crude Drugs

Tuesday, November 2, 2021

Total Parenteral Nutrition | TPN | PPN

TPN is a medical term and tpn means total parenteral nutrition, it is the type of parenteral nutrition in which nutrients are administered to the person through the veins, bypassing or avoiding the gastrointestinal tract.

What Is Parenteral Feeding Or Parenteral Nutrition?

Parenteral feeding or parenteral nutrition is a broader term and is used for the administration of nutrient fluids into the body using veins instead of the GI tract.

Parenteral Feeding is further divided into two types one is TPN (total parenteral nutrition) and the other is PPN (Peripheral parenteral nutrition)

What IS TPN / Total Parenteral Nutrition

In simple words, TPN is a liquid preparation containing all the important ingredients required to the body and are administered through the large vein known as superior vena cava.

TPN is also defined as the feeding system which bypasses the GIT system.

The TPN system was first developed by Dr Stanley Dudrick in 1960.

What IS PPN?

PPN is the type of intravenous feeding or parenteral feeding in which nutrients are administered to the body using peripheral intravenous lines rather than central lines. It is used for short term or temporary supply of nutrients.

When To Use TPN

As we discussed earlier TPN is the bypassing of GIT so it is used when there is a serious problem in the functioning of GIT or in any disease condition which makes it impossible to take food or nutrients orally.

For Whom TPN Is Used

Although TPN is the method of nutrition administration, it is not a normal feeding system, which means it is not used for healthy patients.

  • TPN is used for those patients who are not able to take food through the gastrointestinal tract due to some disease conditions.

  • TPN is used for those patients who are in a coma and are not able to take food through gastrointestinal tracts.

  • TPN is used for premature babies to improve their health.

  • TPN is used for those patients who are elderly and their GIT absorption is reduced.

  • TPN is administered to those patients who have a blockage in their GIT.

  • TPN is administered to those patients who have a leakage in their GIT.

  • TPN is also administered to patients suffering from short bowel syndrome.

  • TPN is administered to the patients having severe diarrhoea.

  • TPN is used for cancer patients.

  • TPN is also administered to patients who are suffering from intestinal bleeding.

  • TPN is administered to the patient who is recommended for long-duration bowl rest.

What Are Complication Of TPN

As we know that TPN is not the method of oral administration and it is administered through veins so it may result in the following complications,

  • Catheter Infection may occur due to the administration of TPN using a needle system.Septic shock may result in harm to life.

  • Blood clotting may occur.

  • Long term usage of TPN may fail the liver functioning or may result in the fatty liver.

  • Feeling of hunger.

  • Administration of medicines along with TPN may result in severe complications due to incompatibility.

Components OF TPN

Patients receiving TPN are dependent on intravenous fluids so TPN solutions should contain all the essential and required nutrients so that the basic dietary needs of patients may be met.

Before TPN administration patients nutrient requirements are calculated and then TPN is administered according to the condition.

Following are the main components of TPN Solution,

  • Lipids

  • Amino Acids

  • Fats

  • sugar

  • Vitamins

  • Dextrose

  • Potassium

  • Calcium

  • Sodium

  • Chloride

  • Magnesium Ions

  • Trace elements

  • Added substance

Added substances are mixed in tpn preparations depending on patient requirements.

Preparation Of TPN

TPN is prepared by qualified pharmacists in hospital pharmacy. For accurate administration of nutrients, TPN calculations are done daily according to the patient's conditions and requirements.

TPN Route Of Administration

TPN is administered by using a catheter into the central vein which directly leads to the heart.

Duration Of TPN

Parenteral nutrition is recommended to patients for short term and long term duration.

The administration of TPN fluid usually takes 10-12 hours a day.

Life with TPN is somewhat difficult because a long duration is required for its administration.

Instructions For TPN

Following instructions should be followed for TPN,

  • Always check Patient name before administration.

  • Do not administer a TPN bag if it is expired.

  • Do not administer the TPN bag if it leaked.

TPN at Home Or Hospital

TPN can be administered to the patient both at home or hospital depending upon the condition of the patient.

Also Read
Quality Assurance